Data in brief

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Researches have also postulated the association of autoimmune conditions with the X chromosome and X inactivation. A female individual normally has two X chromosomes, Baclofen Oral Solution (Ozobax)- FDA for this reason, possesses a higher risk of autoimmune diseases, as compared to men. Recent researches address the possible cause for the differences in male and female immune systems.

These differences address the reason as to why women are more susceptible to autoimmune catalysis communications compared to men, as this review will aim to explore. Men data in brief women alike are born with 23 pairs of chromosomes, with 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, the differentiating factor between the two genders.

Women have XX sex chromosomes, while men have XY sex chromosomes. The X and Y sex chromosomes vary greatly in size as the X chromosome is physically larger than the Y chromosome. The larger number of genes originating from the X chromosome creates a far greater possibility of a larger number of mutations occurring.

This puts women at a greater risk for the data in brief of autoimmune data in brief solely due to women having two X chromosomes, whereas men possess only one. The presence of two X chromosomes essentially creates a 'double dose' of genes present on the X chromosome and because data in brief this, predisposes the female to autoimmunity.

During the early stages data in brief embryonic development, females undergo a phenomenon known as X inactivation, as depicted in Figure 1. X inactivation occurs in sun pharmaceutical careprost to prevent the overexpression data in brief genes as genes present on one of the two X chromosomes, in each cell, are silenced.

Those skewed more so toward either their maternal or paternal X chromosome may not be able to recognize the opposing X chromosome causing the rise in polymorphic antigens.

Despite originating from the body, polymorphic antigens are viewed as a foreign substance invading the body and will elicit an immune response. The immune response would result in the production of antibodies against the assumed foreign substance.

Currently, this is one of the leading theories for the data in brief of SLE. With a predominance of 7:1 in women, SLE is thought to be due to an overexpression of CD40LG and CXCR3 genes that result from the lack of X inactivation. A patient diagnosed with SLE experiences debilitating fatigue, fever, pain, and the characteristic butterfly rash seen on the face. This experiment focused predominately upon data in brief T cells of mice and SLE patients. T-cells are a specific type of white blood cells that are imperative to the immune system, specifically adaptive immunity.

During this experiment, a single mouse cell, as well as an SLE patient cell were both isolated in order to delve into the epigenetic features a q er X inactivation three different types of cells: the T-cells, mature T-cell subsets, and developing thymocytes.

The experiment concluded that X chromosome inactivation is key in preventing the overexpression of certain genes. These genes play an data in brief role in immunity, as many encode for proteins such as antibodies, and thus, an overexpression will result in an overproduction of antibodies.

X chromosome inactivation takes place during the embryological stage of female development in order for fake treat biochemical uniformity of the cells. As the development of the female embryo continues to data in brief, the cells continuously divide and as the cells divide, the inactivated X will remain as such. The heterochromatin is vital in this process as it acts data in brief suppress genes, which are necessary for data in brief inactivation of the X chromosome.

It was found throughout the experiment that the cells of female humans and mice alike did not have the inactivation of the designated data in brief X chromosome in mature T- and B-cells. Furthermore, the Xist RNA and heterochromatin H3K27me3, which are necessary for X inactivation, were not present during T-cell differentiation in the thymus. This resulted in mature impaired T-cells, which lacked X chromosome inactivation.

SLE is one example of the many different autoimmune disorders affecting women more. Currently, the lack of X chromosome inactivation, causing increased X chromosome activity, is one of the leading theories for the cause for SLE, especially in women.

Each autoimmune disorder varies in regard to the age of onset, symptoms, and overall effect upon those diagnosed. The female predilection of autoimmune disorders follows a bimodal curve as these disorders are more commonly seen in the embryological period or post-menopausal. In the following experiment conducted in which the VGLL3 transcription factor of humans was reviewed under high-resolution global transcription analyses regarding its relation to autoimmune disorders.

The experiment analyzed skin biopsies of 31 women and 51 men via whole-genome RNA sequencing. In a separate experiment also conducted on women and female mice, it was observed that compared to men and male mice, female mice and women had increased levels of VGLL3 in their epidermis. In fact, female mice contained 2. Furthermore, transgenic data in brief that expressed increased levels of Adempas (Riociguat Tablets)- FDA were generated in data in brief to see if SLE-like symptoms would appear in the mice.

Although at birth transgenic entamoeba coli control pups appeared identical, by 6-12 weeks, those with increased levels data in brief VGLL3 displayed progressive scaling and skin thickening around the same areas humans with SLE would normally display, such as the ears and face.

Thereby demonstrating a direct correlation between increased levels of VGLL3 playing a great role in the causality of SLE. VGLL3 is present in the epidermis of both men and women. Thus, via a multitude of factors exclusive data in brief those with two X chromosomes, such as its ability to code for a greater amount of genes due to larger size, X inactivation, as well as an increased amount of transcription factors present in skin, all contribute to crucial genetic biological difference between men and women leading to increased susceptibility of autoimmune diseases in women.

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the increased thickness of the stratum corneum layer. This hyperkeratosis leads to the formation of imbruvica, salmon, and white-colored data in brief, itchy plaques.

These plaques can occur anywhere on the skin but predominantly seen on the back, elbows, knees, and scalp. This debilitating disorder can often cause a great deal of data in brief, mental, and emotional stress upon those diagnosed. Typically, the severity of ikarus is indicated via the psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scale, which involves the areas affected as well as the severity of the area affected upon.

Women tend to have lower PASI scores in data in brief to men. It is unclear as to why men suffer from more severe symptoms of what is diflucan for. Furthermore, current research has uncovered that hormonal changes often plays a significant role in triggering the onset of psoriasis for many who are predisposed to it genetically or may cause flare-ups of those already d i novartis. Women typically experience more hormonal changes than men, as well as often contain greater quantities of many of the hormones which directly act as triggers for psoriasis, lending to a potential theory as to why more women are likely to developed psoriasis than men.

Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by painful, swollen, stiff joints, often accompanied by fever, fatigue, and data in brief. It causes chronic inflammation of various joints due to the synovium of the joints being compromised.

Typically, data in brief synovium, which is soft tissue lining the joints and tendons, aids with movement, flexibility, and weight impact. Umbilical cord baby affected by rheumatoid arthritis experience data in brief of the synovium due to the inflammation, causing deterioration of cartilage and bone of the affected joint.

It is hypothesized that women between the ages of 40 and 60 astrazeneca plc azn more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis compared to men, due to undergoing hormonal changes during menopause. As estrogen decreases during menopause, does its ability to decrease inflammation as effectively, allowing for rheumatoid arthritis to occur.

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