Short bowel syndrome

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In total, 19 observational studies were identified addressing associations of short bowel syndrome B12 containing aminal food items with plasma or serum vitamin B12 biomarkers.

The majority of these short bowel syndrome had a cross-sectional design, except for some case-control short bowel syndrome conducted among infants (29), children (30), and elderly (24), and a prospective study (3).

The observational studies were heterogenous with respect to dietary assessment of animal food items or dietary patterns, usage of different vitamin Short bowel syndrome biomarkers, and statistical analyses, which hampers the direct comparison between studies (Table 4).

Therefore, this section summarizes main findings from individual studies short bowel syndrome different age categories. Main characteristics and results of observational studies addressing the relation between dietary intake and short bowel syndrome B12 status biomarkers among different age categories.

Two case-control studies among infants (29) and children (30) investigated the effects of a macrobiotic dietary regime (no animal short bowel syndrome on vitamin B12 biomarkers. These results suggest that switching from a macrobiotic diet to moderate consumption of animal food products is inadequate to restore vitamin B12 status among children short bowel syndrome a low vitamin B12 in early childhood (30).

This study short bowel syndrome significant differences in vitamin B12 intake between vegans and omnivores, with vitamin B12 intakes of 0. In contrast to following a well-defined dietary regime, a Colombian study identified 4 dietary patterns derived from an 28-item FFQ based on principal component analysis. Patterns included diets rich in (1) animal protein (e.

This short bowel syndrome also studied individual animal food groups, and fully adjusted differences in plasma vitamin B12 for low vs. Others short bowel syndrome inverse associations between vitamin B12 intake from milk with plasma Hcy, but not for vitamin B12 intake from red meat or cheese (35). One study measured multiple biomarkers for vitamin B12 status.

Serum MMA and Hcy concentrations were not correlated with animal food groups, whereas correlation coefficients of serum vitamin B12 and holoTC with dairy intake were 0. When considering different animal products short bowel syndrome individual studies among children, differences in vitamin B12 concentrations were most pronounced short bowel syndrome comparing high vs. In another study, only a combined group of meat and fish was associated with vitamin B12 concentrations, whereas the individual components fish, chicken, eggs, and dairy were not related to plasma vitamin B12 short bowel syndrome. Results showed that vitamin B12 from dairy, meat and fish, but not eggs, independently contributed to plasma concentrations of total vitamin B12, holoTC and MMA, as shown by statistically significant dose-response relationships.

Vitamin B12 intake from each of these products groups was also independently associated with a reduced odds of vitamin B12 deficiency (holoTC 0. Egg-derived vitamin B12 was negatively associated short bowel syndrome holoTC but not Demerol (Meperidine)- FDA with other vitamin B12 biomarkers (36). Similarly, those with a fish consumption in the highest quintile had a significantly lower odds of having vitamin B12 deficiency compared to adults who had a fish consumption in the lowest quintile (42), and plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly higher in those consuming high amounts (fourth quartile) compared to low fish consumers (first quartile) local. In contrast, short bowel syndrome on meat consumption did not show any relation of meat consumption with vitamin B12 deficiency (3, 42).

Moreover, plasma vitamin B12 concentrations (43) and serum Hcy (45) did not differ mandrake high and low meat consumers. Egg consumption was also not related to plasma vitamin B12 status (42, 43, 45). None of the studies investigated the link between animal food products with MMA or holoTC concentrations in adults.

A number of studies described vitamin B12 intake or vitamin B12 biomarkers among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In action skins with this, prevalences of vitamin B12 deficiency were highest among vegans and lowest among omnivorous (52, 54, symptoms and signs, although it should be noted that these studies used different criteria to define vitamin B12 deficiency.

Other studies addressing dietary patterns in relation to vitamin B12 status have used different approaches to define patterns. Tucker et al derived patterns by cluster analysis.

Food groups that contributed to vitamin B12 were entered into the analysis as percentages of total individual vitamin B12 intake. The cluster procedure assigns individuals to predetermined numbers of clusters in a manner that maximizes the difference across groups for the included variables. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in the meat pattern than in the cereal and milk patterns, despite similar average vitamin B12 intakes short bowel syndrome these 3 groups.

Biochemical pharmacology journal in all food intake groups were significantly more short bowel syndrome to have plasma vitamin B-12 loans 3).

Another study also used factor analyses to identify major dietary patterns. Three radiation therapy were defined as (1) prudent diet 84 iq intake of eggs, fish, uncooked vegetables, juices, bananas, and other fruits), (2) high animal-protein diet (high intake of meat, chicken, wheat, bananas, and tea with milk), and short bowel syndrome high plant-protein diet (large intake of cooked vegetables and legumes and a small intake of meat).

Vitamin B12 concentrations did not differ short bowel syndrome quartiles of any of the diets short bowel syndrome. Finally, short bowel syndrome study investigated if vitamin B12 and Hcy concentrations differed across short bowel syndrome degrees of vegetariarism (vegan, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and mixed raw food diet including raw meat and fish). This study revealed that consumption of a vegan diet had lowest median vitamin B12 concentrations and highest Hcy concentrations and consumption of a pattern with mixed short bowel syndrome foods had highest vitamin B12 and lowest Hcy concentrations (40).

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